Scholars Sign Letter Disagreeing With Holocaust Museum on Analogies

3

On June 24, days after a tweet by Rep. Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez (D-N.Y.) spurred a heated debate about the term “concentration camps,” the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum posted a statement on its website. The USHMM did not specifically mention Ocasio-Cortez, who had described the migrant detention centers in the U.S. as “concentration camps,” invoking the definition used by journalist Andrea Pitzer. But they did address the larger question that Ocasio-Cortez’s tweet seemed to raise: Was it ever acceptable to compare the Holocaust to other world events?

The USHMM took a hard line. “The United States Holocaust Memorial Museum unequivocally rejects efforts to create analogies between the Holocaust and other events, whether historical or contemporary,” the statement read.

Full text:

WASHINGTON, DC – The United States Holocaust Memorial Museum unequivocally rejects efforts to create analogies between the Holocaust and other events, whether historical or contemporary. That position has repeatedly and unambiguously been made clear in the Museum’s official statement on the matter – a statement that is reiterated and reaffirmed now. The link to the Museum’s statement is here.

The Museum further reiterates that a statement ascribed to a Museum staff historian regarding recent attempts to analogize the situation on the United States southern border to concentration camps in Europe during the 1930s and 1940s does not reflect the position of the Museum.

The Museum deeply regrets any offense to Holocaust survivors and others that may have been engendered by any statement ascribed to a Museum historian in a personal capacity.

###

 

To many academics affiliated with the museum, the statement came as a surprise. In response, hundreds of academics signed an open letter that was published on July 1 in The New York Review of Books, which said, in part, “the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum is taking a radical position that is far removed from mainstream scholarship on the Holocaust and genocide. And it makes learning from the past almost impossible.”

Full text:

To Director Bloomfield:We are scholars who strongly support the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Many of us write on the Holocaust and genocide; we have researched in the USHMM’s library and archives or served as fellows or associated scholars; we have been grateful for the Museum’s support and intellectual community. Many of us teach the Holocaust at our universities, and have drawn on the Museum’s online resources. We support the Museum’s programs from workshops to education.We are deeply concerned about the Museum’s recent “Statement Regarding the Museum’s Position on Holocaust Analogies.” We write this public letter to urge its retraction.

Scholars in the humanities and social sciences rely on careful and responsible analysis, contextualization, comparison, and argumentation to answer questions about the past and the present. By “unequivocally rejecting efforts to create analogies between the Holocaust and other events, whether historical or contemporary,” the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum is taking a radical position that is far removed from mainstream scholarship on the Holocaust and genocide. And it makes learning from the past almost impossible.

The Museum’s decision to completely reject drawing any possible analogies to the Holocaust, or to the events leading up to it, is fundamentally ahistorical. It has the potential to inflict severe damage on the Museum’s ability to continue its role as a credible, leading global institution dedicated to Holocaust memory, Holocaust education, and research in the field of Holocaust and genocide studies. The very core of Holocaust education is to alert the public to dangerous developments that facilitate human rights violations and pain and suffering; pointing to similarities across time and space is essential for this task.

Looking beyond the academic context, we are well aware of the many distortions and inaccuracies, intentional or not, that frame contemporary discussions of the Holocaust. We are not only scholars. We are global citizens who participate in public discourse, as does the Museum as an institution, and its staff. We therefore consider it essential that the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum reverse its position on careful historical analysis and comparison. We hope the Museum continues to help scholars establish the Holocaust’s significance as an event from which the world must continue to learn.

Signed:

David Abraham, Professor, School of Law, University of Miami
Deborah Achtenberg, Professor of Philosophy, Faculty Associate in Gender, Race, Identity, University of Nevada, Reno
James R. Adair, Lecturer in Humanities and Religious Studies, University of Texas at San Antonio
Hugh LeCaine Agnew, Professor of History and International Affairs, Elliott School of International Affairs, George Washington University
Carlos Aguirre, Professor of History, University of Oregon
Michal Aharony, Editor, The Journal of Holocaust Research, Weiss-Livnat International Center for Holocaust Research and Education, University of Haifa, Israel
Avril Alba, Ph.D., Senior Lecturer in Holocaust Studies and Jewish Civilisation, University of Sydney, Australia
Ángel Alcalde, Lecturer in History, University of Melbourne, Australia
Natalia Aleksiun, Professor of Modern Jewish History, Touro College
Kimberly Allar, Clinical Assistant Professor of History, Co-Director, Online World War II Studies, School of Historical, Philosophical & Religious Studies, Arizona State University
Barbara Allen, Associate Professor of History, La Salle University
Benjamin L. Alpers, Associate Professor, Honors College, University of Oklahoma
Andrew Altman, Professor of Philosophy, Georgia State University
Tarik Cyril Amar, Koç University, Turkey
Claire Andrieu, Professor of Contemporary History, Sciences Po, Paris, France
Emily Abrams Ansari, Associate Professor of Music History, Western University, Canada
Dora Apel, Professor and W. Hawkins Ferry Endowed Chair in Modern and Contemporary Art History, Wayne State University, UK
Kwame Anthony Appiah, Professor of Philosophy and Law, New York University
Rachel Applebaum, Assistant Professor of History, Tufts University
Celia Applegate, William R. Kenan, Jr. Professor of History, Vanderbilt University
Karen Auerbach, Associate Professor of History, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
Leora Auslander, Arthur and Joann Rasmussen Professor of Western Civilization in the College and Professor of Modern European Social History in the History Department, University of Chicago
Akil N. Awan, Senior Lecturer in Modern History, Political Violence & Terrorism, Royal Holloway, University of London
Albena Azmanova, Professor of Politics, University of Kent, UK
Jonathan Bach, Professor of Global Studies, The New School
Mark Baker, Adjunct Associate Professor, Australian Centre for Jewish Civilisation, Monash University, Australia
Monique Rodrigues Balbuena, Associate Professor of Comparative Literature and Jewish Studies, Clark Honors College, University of Oregon
Shelley Baranowski, Distinguished Professor of History Emerita, University of Akron
Ben Barkow, Director, The Wiener Library, London, UK
Lawrence Baron, Professor Emeritus, San Diego State University
Deborah Barton, University of Montreal, Canada
Omer Bartov, John P. Birkelund Distinguished Professor of European History, Professor of German Studies, Brown University
Paul R. Bartrop, Professor of History, Director, Center for Judaic, Holocaust, and Genocide Studies, Florida Gulf Coast University
Rachel N. Baum, Senior Lecturer and Deputy Director of the Sam & Helen Stahl Center for Jewish Studies, University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee
Michael Beckerman, Carroll and Milton Petrie Professor of Music, New York University
Jonathan Beecher Field, Associate Professor of English, Clemson University
Jan Claas Behrends, Senior Fellow at the Centre for Contemporary History (ZZF), Potsdam, Lecturer in East European History, Humboldt Universität zu Berlin, Germany
Cristina A. Bejan, Duke University
Mara Benjamin, Irene Kaplan Leiwant Associate Professor of Jewish Studies, Mount Holyoke College Waitman Wade Beorn, Lecturer, Corcoran Department Of History, University of Virginia
Christine Beresniova, Executive Director, South Carolina Council on the Holocaust, Instructor of Anthropology, Ashford University
Nancy Berg, Professor of Hebrew Language and Literature, Washington University in St. Louis
James Berger, Senior Lecturer in American Studies and English, Yale University
Michael Berghoef, Professor of Social Work, Ferris State University
Max Bergholz, Associate Professor of History, Concordia University, Montreal, Canada
Teresa Bergman, Professor of Communication, University of the Pacific
Joel Berkowitz, Professor of Foreign Languages and Literature and Director of the Sam & Helen Stahl Center for Jewish Studies, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee
Lila Corwin Berman, Professor of History, Murray Friedman Chair of American Jewish History and Director of the Feinstein Center for American Jewish History, Temple University
Nathaniel Berman, Rahel Varnhagen Professor of Religious Studies, Brown University
Olga Bertelsen, Assistant Professor of Intelligence Studies, Embry-Riddle College of Security and Intelligence
Svenja Bethke, Lecturer in Modern European History, University of Leicester, UK
David Biale, Emanuel Ringelblum Distinguished Professor, University of California, Davis
Natalie Belsky, Assistant Professor of History, University of Minnesota Duluth
Elissa Bemporad, Associate Professor of East European Jewish History and the Holocaust, Queens College and The Graduate Center, City University of New York
Doris Bergen, Chancellor Rose and Ray Wolfe Professor of Holocaust Studies, University of Toronto, Canada
Frank Biess, Professor of History, University of California, San Diego
Monica Black, Associate Professor of History, University of Tennessee, Knoxville
David Blackbourn, Cornelius Vanderbilt Distinguished Chair and Professor of History, Vanderbilt University
Adam A. Blackler, Assistant Professor of History, University of Wyoming
Muriel Blaive,* Ústav pro studium totalitních režimu (Institute for the Study of Totalitarian Regimes), Prague, Czech Republic
Daniel Blatman, Max and Rita Haber Professor in Contemporary Jewry and Holocaust Studies, Head of the Harman Research Institute of Contemporary Jewry, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Israel
Benita Blessing, Instructor, World Languages and Cultures, Oregon State University
Donald Bloxham, Professor of Modern History, University of Edinburgh, UK
Jeffrey Blutinger, Barbara and Ray Alpert Endowed Chair in Jewish Studies, California State University, Long Beach
Paul Boghossian, Silver Professor of Philosophy, New York University
Andrea F. Bohlman, Associate Professor of Music, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
Melissa Bokovoy, Chair and Professor, Department of History, University of New Mexico
Alan Brill, Cooperman/Ross Endowed Professor in honor of Sister Rose Thering, Seton Hall University
Tobias Brinkmann, Malvin and Lea Bank Associate Professor of Jewish Studies and History, Penn State University
James M. Brophy, Professor of History, University of Delaware
Martin D. Brown, Lead Researcher, Centre of Excellence in Intercultural Studies, School of Humanities, Tallinn University, Estonia
Timothy Scott Brown, Professor and Chair of History, Northeastern University
Julia Brüggemann, Professor of History, DePauw University
Diana Kormos Buchwald, Robert M. Abbey Professor of History, General Editor and Director, The Einstein Papers Project, California Institute of Technology
Maria Bucur, John V Hill Professor of History and Gender Studies, Indiana University Bloomington
Darcy Buerkle, Associate Professor, Department of History, Smith College
Peter Bugge, Associate Professor of Central European Studies, Aarhus University, Denmark
Melissa K. Byrnes, Associate Professor and Chair of History, Southwestern University
Joy H. Calico, Cornelius Vanderbilt Professor of Musicology, Vanderbilt University
Carlo Spartaco Capogreco, Associate Professor of Contemporary History, University of Calabria, Italy
Karen D. Caplan, Associate Professor of History, Rutgers University, Newark
Holly Case, Associate Professor of History, Brown University
Michael Casper, University of California, Los Angeles; former Mandel Center Research Fellow
Jonathon Catlin, Department of History, Princeton University
Vitaly Chernetsky, Associate Professor of Slavic Languages and Literatures and Director of the Center for Russian, East European & Eurasian Studies, University of Kansas
Mita Choudhury, Professor of History, Vassar College
Anna Cichopek-Gajraj, Associate Professor of Modern Polish-Jewish History, Arizona State University
Samantha Clarke, Department of History, McMaster University, Canada
Shelly M. Cline, Kansas City Art Institute
Shawn Clybor, History Teacher, Dwight-Englewood School
Brigid Cohen, Associate Professor of Music, New York University
Danny M. Cohen, Distinguished Professor of Instruction, School of Education and Social Policy, Northwestern University
Mark B. Cole, College Associate Lecturer, Cleveland State University, Board Member of the Ohio Council on Holocaust and Genocide Education
Tim Cole, Professor of Social History and Director of the Brigstow Institute, University of Bristol, UK
Alon Confino, Pen Tishkach Chair of Holocaust Studies, University of Massachussetts at Amherst
Jazmine Contreras, Ph.D. Candidate, University of Minnesota
N.D.B. Connolly, Herbert Baxter Adams Associate Professor, Johns Hopkins University
Manuela Consonni, Professor, Pela And Adam Starkopf Chair in Holocaust Studies, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Israel
Seth Cotlar, Professor of History, Willamette University
Stef Craps, Professor of English Literature, Director, Cultural Memory Studies Initiative, Ghent University, Belgium
Brian Crim, Associate Professor of History, John M. Turner Chair in the Humanities, Lynchburg University
Martina Cucchiara, Associate Professor of History, Bluffton University
Sarah Cushman, Northwestern University
Mikkel Dack, Professor of History, Director of Research, Rowan Center for Holocaust and Genocide Studies, Rowan University
Peter Davies, Professor of Modern German Studies, University of Edinburgh, UK
Valerie Deacon, Clinical Assistant Professor of History, New York University Shanghai
Rachel Deblinger, Director of Documenting Global Voices Project, University of California, Los Angeles
Andrew Dell’Antonio, Distinguished Teaching Professor of Musicology, University of Texas at Austin
Scott Denham, Charles A. Dana Professor of German Studies, E. Craig Wall Jr. Distinguished Teaching Professor in the Humanities, Davidson College
Andrew Denning, Associate Professor of History, University of Kansas
David Brandon Dennis, Associate Professor of History, Dean College
Christoph Dieckmann, Research Fellow, University of Bern, Switzerland/Germany
Hasia Diner, Professor of History and of Hebrew and Judaic Studies, New York University
Skye Doney, Director of the George L. Mosse Program in History, University of Wisconsin-Madison
Alexandra van Doren, Department of Comparative Literature, University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign; Law Student, Immigration and Human Rights; University of Michigan School of Law
Daniella Doron, Senior Lecturer in Jewish History, Australian Centre for Jewish Civilisation, Monash University, Australia
Thomas L. Doughton, Senior Lecturer, College of the Holy Cross
Lawrence Douglas, James J. Grosfeld Professor of Law, Jurisprudence & Social Thought, Amherst College
Jennifer Dowling, University of Sydney, Australia
Theodora Dragostinova, Associate Professor of History, Ohio State University
Elizabeth Drummond, Associate Professor and Chair of History, Loyola Marymount University
Diana Dumitru, Associate Professor of History, Ion Creanga State Pedagogical University, Moldova
Deborah Dwork, Founding Director, Strassler Center for Holocaust and Genocide Studies, Clark University
Hilary Earl, Professor of History, Nipissing University
Astrid M. Eckert, Associate Professor of History, Emory University
M. Kathryn Edwards, Assistant Professor of History, Tulane University
Rachel L. Einwohner, Professor of Sociology and (by courtesy) Political Science, Purdue University
Dan Ellin, Archivist, International Bomber Command Centre, University of Lincoln, UK
Jane Ellsworth, Professor of Music History, Eastern Washington University
Robert P. Ericksen, Kurt Mayer Chair in Holocaust Studies Emeritus, Pacific Lutheran University
Andrea Erkenbrecher, Freelance Historian, Karlsruhe, Germany
Jennifer Evans, Professor of History, Carleton University
Sidra DeKoven Ezrahi, Professor of Comparative Literature, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem
Erica Fagen, University of Massachusetts at Amherst
Linda E. Feldman, Associate Professor of German (retired), University of Windsor, Canada
Brian K. Feltman, Associate Professor of History, Georgia Southern University
Heather Ferguson, Associate Professor of Middle East/Ottoman History, Claremont McKenna College
Kate Ferguson, Chair of Policy, European Centre for the Responsibility to Protect, University of Leeds, UK; Co-Executive Director, Protection Approaches
Scott Ferguson, Associate Professor of Humanities & Cultural Studies, University of South Florida
Jonathan Beecher Field, Associate Professor of English, Clemson University
Gabriel Finder, Professor of Germanic Languages and Literatures, Ida and Nathan Kolodiz Director of Jewish Studies, University of Virginia
Eugene Finkel,* Associate Professor, School of Advanced International Studies, Johns Hopkins University
Matthew P. Fitzpatrick, Professor of International History, Flinders University, Australia
Monika Flaschka, Visiting Lecturer, Georgia State University
Sam Fleischacker, Professor of Philosophy, Director of Religious Studies and of Jewish Studies, University of Illinois at Chicago
Tiffany N. Florvil, Assistant Professor of History, University of New Mexico
Darcie Fontaine, Associate Professor of History, University of South Florida
Jennifer L. Foray, Associate Professor of History, Purdue University
Russell Arben Fox, Professor of Political Science, Friends University
Richard E. Frankel, Richard G. Neiheisel Professor in European History, University of Louisiana at Lafayette
Michal Frankl, Masaryk Institute and Archives of the Czech Academy of Sciences, Czech Republic
David M.P. Freund, Associate Professor of History, University of Maryland, College Park
Jonathan Friedman, Professor and Director of Holocaust and Genocide Studies, West Chester University
Danielle Fosler-Lussier, Professor of Music, Ohio State University
Joshua B. Friedman, Perilman Postdoctoral Fellow, Center for Jewish Studies, Duke University
Kathie Friedman, Associate Professor of International Studies, Jackson School, University of Washington
Judith Friedlander, Professor of Anthropology, Emerita, Hunter College, City University of New York
Benjamin Frommer, Associate Professor of History, Northwestern University
Mary Fulbrook, Professor of German History, University College London (UCL), UK
Alison Furlong, American Religious Sounds Project
Sheer Ganor, Visiting Fellow in the History of Migration, German Historical Institute West
Luis-Manuel Garcia, Assistant Professor/Lecturer in Popular Music Studies and Ethnomusicology, University of Birmingham, UK
Paul Garfinkel, Associate Professor of History, Simon Fraser University, Canada
Libby Garland, Associate Professor of History, Kingsborough Community College and The Graduate Center, The City University of New York
Alexandra Garbarini, Professor of History, Williams College
Leah Garrett, Professor and Director of Jewish Studies, Hunter College, City University of New York
Edyta Gawron, Assistant Professor, Institute of Jewish Studies, Jagiellonian University, Krakow, Poland
Lily Geismer, Associate Professor of History, Claremont McKenna College
Christian Gerlach, Professor of Modern History, University of Bern, Switzerland
Judith Gerson, Associate Professor of Sociology and Women’s and Gender Studies, Rutgers University
Idit Gil, Academic director of Democracy Studies, M.A Program, the Open University, Israel
Catherine Gilbert, Marie Skłodowska-Curie Research Fellow, Cultural Memory Studies Initiative, Ghent University, Belgium
Shirli Gilbert, University of Southampton, UK
Amelia Glaser, Associate Professor of Russian and Comparative Literature, University of California, San Diego
Amos Goldberg, Professor at The Department of Jewish History and Contemporary Jewry, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Israel
Randall Goldberg, Associate Professor of Musicology and Director of the Dana School of Music, Youngstown State University
Janet Golden, Professor Emerita, Rutgers University-Camden
David A. Goldfarb, Independent Scholar, New York
Julien Gorbach, Assistant Professor in the School of Communications, University of Hawaii at Manoa
Peter E. Gordon, Amabel B. James Professor of History, Harvard University
L. Janelle Gornick, Assistant Professor of Psychology, Virginia Military Institute
Boris B. Gorshkov, Lecturer in History, The University of Tennessee at Chattanooga
William Glenn Gray, Associate Professor of History, Purdue University
Walter D. Greason, Dean Emeritus, The Honors School; Chair and Associate Professor, Educational Counseling and Leadership, Monmouth University
Judith Greenberg, Adjunct Faculty, Gallatin School of Individualized Study, New York University
Henry Greenspan, Emeritus, University of Michigan
Simone Gigliotti, Holocaust Research Institute, Royal Holloway, University of London, UK
Dorota Glowacka, University of King’s College, Canada
Jan Grabowski, Professor of History, University of Ottawa
Ronald Granieri, Army War College
Emily Greble, Associate Professor of History and East European Studies, Vanderbilt University
Julie Greene, Professor of History, University of Maryland at College Park
Neil Gregor, Professor of Modern European History, University of Southampton, UK
Glenda E. Gilmore, Peter V. and C Vann Woodward Professor of History Emeritus, Yale University
Atina Grossmann, Professor of History in the Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, Cooper Union, New York City
Gary D. Grossman, Professor of Animal Ecology, University of Georgia
Amanda F. Grzyb, Associate Professor of Information and Media Studies, Western University
Liora Gubkin, Professor of Religious Studies, Director Institute for Religion, Education, and Public Policy, California State University, Bakersfield
Debra Guckenheimer, Lecturer, Sociology and Human Development, California State University, East Bay
Edin Hajdarpasic, Associate Professor of Modern European History, Loyola University Chicago
Anna Hajkova,* Associate Professor of History, University of Warwick, UK
Sara Halpern, Ohio State University
Nancy Harrowitz, Professor of Italian and Jewish Studies, Director of the Minor in Holocaust, Genocide and Human Right Studies, Boston University
Cynthia Haynes, Director of Rhetorics, Communication, and Information Design Ph.D. Program, Professor of English, Clemson University
Valerie Hebert, Associate Professor, Lakehead University Orillia, Canada
Susanne Heim, University of Freiburg
Elizabeth Heineman, Professor of History and of Gender, Women’s, and Sexuality Studies, University of Iowa
Daniel Kupfert Heller, Kronhill Senior Lecturer in East European Jewish History, Australian Centre for Jewish Civilisation, Monash University, Australia
David Helps, Department of History, University of Michigan
Burkhard Henke, Professor of German, Davidson College
David Henkin, Professor of History, University of California, Berkeley
Laura Herron, Assistant Professor of Jewish Studies and History, Oberlin College
Deborah Hertz, Professor of History, Wouk Chair in Modern Jewish Studies, University of California San Diego
Susannah Heschel, Eli Black Professor of Jewish Studies, Dartmouth College
Benjamin Hett, Professor of History, Hunter College and the Graduate Center, City University of New York
Jim Hicks, Executive Editor, The Massachusetts Review, Senior Lecturer in Comparative Literature, University of Massachusetts at Amherst
Steven High, Professor of History, Concordia University, Montreal, Canada
Faith Hillis, Associate Professor of Russian History, The University of Chicago
Susanne Hillman, San Diego State University/University of California, San Diego
Laura J. Hilton, Professor of History, Muskingum University
Marianne Hirsch, William Peterfield Trent Professor of English and Comparative Literature, Columbia University
Erin Hochman, Associate Professor of History, Southern Methodist University
Tobias Hof, Ludwig-Maximilians-University Munich, Germany
Janine Holc, Associate Professor, Political Science Department, Loyola University
Sandie Holguín, Professor of History, University of Oklahoma
Anna Holian, Associate Professor of History, Arizona State University
Alana Holland, Department of History, University of Kansas
Lynn Holly, Architect
Hannah Holtschneider, Senior Lecturer in Jewish Studies, University of Edinburgh, UK
Claire M. Hubbard-Hall, Senior Lecturer in History, Bishop Grosseteste University, UK
Anne P. Hubbell, Professor, Department of Communication Studies, New Mexico State University
Erika Hughes, Senior Lecturer in Drama and Performance, University of Portsmouth, UK
Judith M. Hughes, Professor Emerita of History, University of California, San Diego
Alexandra Hui, Associate Professor of History, Mississippi State University
Samuel Clowes Huneke, Assistant Professor of History, George Mason University
Tera W. Hunter, Edwards Professor of American History, Princeton University
Jennifer Hurst-Wender, Director of Museum Operations and Education, Preservation Virginia
Samara Hutman, Former Executive Director, Los Angeles Museum of The Holocaust, 2013-2016
Andreas Huyssen, Villard Professor Emeritus of German and Comparative Literature, Columbia University
Natalia Indrimi, Centro Primo Levi New York
Christian Ingrao, Senior Researcher Institut d’Histoire du Temps Présent, CNRS/Université, Paris, France
Steven Leonard Jacobs, Professor of Religious Studies & Aronov Endowed Chair of Judaic Studies, University of Alabama
Paul Jaskot, Professor of Art, Art History and Visual Studies, Duke University
Tomaz Jardim,* Associate Professor of History, Ryerson University, Canada
Joseph E. Jensen, Adjunct Professor, Georgetown University
Steven Jobbitt, Associate Professor of History, Lakehead University
Richard Ivan Jobs, Professor of History, Pacific University
Elisa von Joeden-Forgey, Dr. Marsha Raticoff Grossman Professor of Holocaust and Genocide Studies, Stockton University
Alison Frank Johnson, Professor of History and of Germanic Languages and Literatures; Chair, Department of Germanic Languages and Literatures, Harvard University
Jason Johnson, Associate Professor of History, Trinity University
Nicholas K. Johnson, Deputy Head, Center for German-American Educational History, University of Münster, Germany
Timothy Scott Johnson, Visiting Assistant Professor of History, Texas A&M University Corpus Christi
Benjamin T. Jones, Lecturer in History, Central Queensland University, Australia
Adam Jones, Professor of Political Science, University of British Columbia Okanagan, Canada
Ari Joskowicz, Associate Professor of Jewish Studies, European Studies, and History, Vanderbilt University
Steffen Jost, Head of Education Department, Dachau Concentration Camp Memorial Site, Germany
Jonathan Judaken, Spence L. Wilson Chair in the Humanities, Rhodes College
Robin Judd, Associate Professor of History, Ohio State University
Pieter M. Judson, Professor of 19th and 20th Century History, European University Institute, Florence, Italy
Kathryn Julian, Visiting Lecturer in History, Maryville College
Irene Kacandes, Dartmouth Professor of German Studies and Comparative Literature, Dartmouth College
Carroll P. Kakel, III, Lecturer, Krieger School of Arts & Sciences, Advanced Academic Programs, Johns Hopkins University
Martin Kalb, Assistant Professor of History, Bridgewater College
Brett Kaplan, Professor of Literature, University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign
Marion Kaplan, Skirball Professor of Modern Jewish History, New York University
Thomas Pegelow Kaplan, Leon Levine Distinguished Professor and Director of the Center for Judaic, Holocaust and Peace Studies, Appalachian State University
Alexander Karn, Associate Professor of History, Director, Peace and Conflict Studies Program, Colgate University
Rabbi Henry Jay Karp, Adjunct Professor of Theology, St. Ambrose University
Olga Kartashova, Hebrew and Judaic Studies, New York University
Samuel Kassow, Northam Professor of History, Trinity College
Anthony D. Kauders, Professor of Modern History, Keele University, United Kingdom
Martin Kavka, Professor, Department of Religion, Florida University
Ari Kelman, Chancellor’s Leadership Professor of History, University of California, Davis
Michelle Kelso, Assistant Professor of Sociology and International Affairs, The George Washington University
Padraic Kenney, Professor of History and International Studies, Indiana University Bloomington
Audrey Kichelewski, Associate Professor of Contemporary History, Strasbourg University, France
Ben Kiernan, A. Whitney Griswold Professor of History, Yale University
Charles King, Professor of International Affairs and Government, Georgetown University
Lisa Kirschenbaum, Professor of History, West Chester University
Rebekah Klein-Pejšová, Associate Professor of History, Purdue University
Irena Klepfisz, retired, Barnard College, New York
Sarah Knott, Associate Professor of History, Indiana University Bloomington
Adam Knowles, Assistant Teaching Professor of Philosophy, Drexel University
Anne Knowles, McBride Professor of History, University of Maine
Roy G. Koepp, Assistant Professor of Modern European History, Eastern New Mexico University
Ari Kohen, Associate Professor of Political Science and Schlesinger Professor of Social Justice in the Harris Center for Judaic Studies, University of Nebraska-Lincoln
Yuliya Komska, Associate Professor of German Studies, Dartmouth College
Jeffrey S. Kopstein, Professor of Political Science, University of California, Irvine
Alexander Korb, Associate Professor in Modern European History, University of Leicester, UK
Jacques Kornberg, Professor Emeritus, Department of History, University of Toronto, Canada
Melissa Kravetz, Associate Professor of History, Longwood University
Barbara Krawcowicz, Post-Doctoral Fellow in Judaic Studies, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway
Leslie Kriebel, Social Science Lecturer, Boston University
Kevin M. Kruse, Professor of History, Princeton University
Lukasz Krzyzanowski, Assistant Professor, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw
Hana Kubatova, Assistant Professor, Charles University Prague, Czech Republic
Emma Kuby, Assistant Professor of History, Northern Illinois University
Thomas Kühne, Director, Strassler Center for Holocaust and Genocide Studies, Clark University
Regina Kunzel, Doris Stevens Chair and Professor of History and Gender and Sexuality Studies, Princeton University
Jacob Ari Labendz, Clayman Assistant Professor and Director of the Center for Judaic and Holocaust Studies, Youngstown State University
Dominick LaCapra, Professor Emeritus of History and Bowmar Professor Emeritus of Humanistic Studies, Cornell University
Richard Lachmann, Professor of Sociology, The State University of New York, Albany
Elizabeth Harrington Lambert, Grand Valley State University
Melinda Landeck, Assistant Professor of East Asian Studies, Austin College
J. Shawn Landres, Senior Fellow, Luskin School of Public Affairs, University of California, Los Angeles
Barry Langford, Professor of Film Studies and Member, Holocaust Research Institute, Royal Holloway, University of London, UK
Neringa Latvyte-Gustaitiene, Faculty of Communication, Vilnius University, Lithuania
Claire Launchbury, Associate Researcher, School of Languages, Cultures and Societies, University of Leeds, UK
Tom Lawson, Professor of History and Pro Vice-Chancellor for the Faculty of Arts, Design and Social Sciences, Northumbria University, UK
Nitzan Lebovic, Associate Professor of History, Apter Chair of Holocaust Studies and Ethical Values, Lehigh University
Kenneth F. Ledford, Associate Professor of History and Law, Case Western Reserve University; Chair, Department of History; Co-Director, Max Kade Center for German Studies
Daniel Lee, Vice-Chancellor’s Fellow, Department of History, University of Sheffield, UK
Laurel Leff, Associate Professor of Journalism, Northeastern University
Lori Lefkovitz, Ruderman Professor of Jewish Studies, Northeastern University
Carole Lemee, Senior Lecturer and Researcher, Université Bordeaux, France
Brigitte Le Normand, Associate Professor of History, University of British Columbia, Okanagan; Humboldt Fellow
Paul Lerner, Professor of History and Director, Max Kade Institute for Austrian-German-Swiss Studies, University of Southern California
Neil Levi, Professor and Chair of English, Drew University
Eve Levin, Ahmanson-Murphy Professor of History, University of Kansas
Paul A. Levine, Independent scholar, Berlin; formerly Research & Education Director, co-founder, The Uppsala University Programme for Holocaust & Genocide Research, Sweden
Beth Lew-Williams, Assistant Professor of History, Princeton University
Mark Leuchter, Professor of Hebrew Bible and Ancient Judaism, Director of Jewish Studies, Department of Religion, Temple University
Laura Levitt, Professor of Religion, Jewish Studies and Gender, Temple University
Laura S. Lieber, Professor of Religious Studies and Director of Jewish Studies, Duke University
Caroline Light, Senior Lecturer, Studies of Women, Gender, and Sexuality, Harvard University
Anna Lind-Guzik, Judith S. Kaye Fellow, Historical Society of the New York Courts, Bard High School Early College, New York
Thomas Lindenberger, Professor for Totalitarianism Studies, Hannah Arendt Institute at Technische Universität Dresden, Germany
Tabea Linhard, Professor of Spanish, Comparative Literature, and International and Area Studies, Washington University in St. Louis
Marcia Sachs Littell, Professor Emeritus, Stockton University; Founding Director of MA program in Holocaust & Genocide Studies
Francis Lowenthal, (Honorary) Professor of Cognitive Sciences, University of Mons, Belgium
Miriam R. Lowi, Professor, Middle East Politics, Department of Political Science, The College of New Jersey
David Luebke, Professor of History, University of Oregon
Aliza Luft,* Assistant Professor of Sociology, University of California, Los Angeles
Stephen Macekura, Associate Professor, Department of International Studies, Indiana University Bloomington
John MacKay, Professor, Slavic Languages and Literatures and Film and Media Studies, Yale University
James Maffie, Senior Lecturer, Department of American Studies, University of Maryland, College Park
Daniel H. Magilow, Professor of German, University of Tennessee, Knoxville
Thomas Maher, Lecturer, Purdue University
Elissa Mailänder, Associate Professor of Gender History, History of Violence and Sexuality, Sciences Po, Paris, France
Barbara Mann, Chana Kekst Professor of Hebrew Literature, Jewish Theological Seminary, New York
Anastasia Mann, Lecturer in Public and International and Affairs, Princeton University
Kate Manne, Associate Professor at the Sage School of Philosophy, Cornell University
Lisa Marcus, Professor of English, Chair, Holocaust and Genocide Studies Program, Pacific Lutheran University
Judy Margles, Director, Oregon Jewish Museum and Center for Holocaust Education
Deborah J. Margolis, Middle East Studies Librarian, Area Studies Coordinator, Michigan State University
Michael R. Marrus, Chancellor Rose and Ray Wolfe Professor Emeritus of Holocaust Studies, University of Toronto, Canada
David Marshall, Professor of History, Suffolk County Community College
Jill Massino, Associate Professor of History, University of North Carolina at Charlotte
Janice Matsumura, Associate Professor of History, Simon Fraser University, Canada
Christopher E. Mauriello, Director, Center for Holocaust and Genocide Studies and Professor of History, Salem State University
James McAuley, University of Oxford
Jared McBride,* Lecturer in History, University of California, Los Angeles
Erin McGlothlin,* Associate Professor of Germanic Languages and Literatures and of Jewish, Islamic and Near Eastern Languages and Cultures, Washington University in St. Louis
Anthony McElligott, MRIA, Professor of History, University of Limerick, Ireland
John McNeill, Professor of History and University Professor, Georgetown University
Frank Mecklenburg, Director of Research, Leo Baeck Institute, New York
Johanna Mellis, Assistant Professor of World History, Ursinus College
Robert Melson, Professor Emeritus, Purdue University
Margaret Eleanor Menninger, Associate Professor of History, Texas State University
David A. Meola, Bert & Fanny Meisler Assistant Professor of History and Director of the USA Jewish & Holocaust Studies Program, University of South Alabama
David A. Messenger, Professor and Chair of History, University of South Alabama
Jolanta Mickutė, Professor of History, Vilnius University and The Lost Shtetl Museum, Vilnius, Lithuania
John Miller, Technology Librarian, Traverse des Sioux Library Cooperative, Mankato, Minnesota
Karen Miller, Professor of History, LaGuardia Community College and the Graduate Center, City University of New York
Michael D. Miller, Independent Scholar, Author of biographical encyclopedias on the senior perpetrators of the Holocaust, San Francisco
Ann Millin, retired, Levine Institute for Holocaust Education, USHMM; Ida E. King Distinguished Visiting Professor, Sara & Sam Schoffer Holocaust Resource Center, Stockton University
Richard H. Minear, Professor of History (Emeritus), University of Massachusetts at Amherst
Amanda Minervini, Assistant Professor, Italian Studies, Colorado College
Guy Miron, Professor of History, Open University of Israel, Israel
Christopher A. Molnar, Associate Professor of History, University of Michigan-Flint
Laura Morowitz, Professor of Art History, Wagner College, New York
Douglas G. Morris, Independent Scholar, Trial Attorney, Federal Defenders of New York, Inc.
Leslie Morris, Professor of German, University of Minnesota
Benjamin Moser, Writer
Imani Danielle Mosley, Assistant Professor of Music, Wichita State University
Dirk Moses, Professor of Modern History, University of Sydney, Australia
Michelle Moyd, Associate Professor of History, Indiana University Bloomington
Samuel Moyn, Henry R. Luce Professor of Jurisprudence and Professor of History, Yale University
Eva Mroczek, Associate Professor of Religious Studies and Jewish Studies, University of California, Davis
Adam Muller, Professor and Director, Peace and Conflict Studies, University of Manitoba, Canada
Alexandru Muraru, Researcher and Lecturer in Political Science, Alexandru Ioan Cuza University of Iasi, Romania
Caitlin Murdock, Professor of History, California State University Long Beach
Devin Naar, Associate Professor of History and Jewish Studies, University of Washington
Norman Naimark, Robert and Florence McDonnell Professor of East European Studies, Stanford University
Stephen Naron, Director, Fortunoff Video Archive for Holocaust Testimonies, Yale University
Benjamin Nathans, Associate Professor of History, University of Pennsylvania
Denisa Nestakova, Research Associate, Comenius University in Bratislava, Slovakia; Herder Institute, Marburg, Germany
John Paul Newman, Senior Lecturer in Twentieth-Century European History, Maynooth University, Ireland
Roberta Newman, Director of Digital Initiatives, YIVO Institute for Jewish Research, New York
Christian Axboe Nielsen, Associate Professor of History and Human Security, Aarhus University, Denmark
Amber N. Nickell, Ph.D. Candidate, Department of History, Purdue University
Bernhard Nickel, Professor of Philosophy, Harvard University
Sr. Cyndi Nienhaus, Associate Professor of Religious Education, Marian University
Carl Nightingale, Professor of Urban and World History, Department of Transnational Studies, University at Buffalo
Mary Nolan, Professor of History Emerita, New York University
Marcy Norton, Associate Professor of History, University of Pennsylvania
Meghan O’Donnell, Senior Lecturer of Political and Social History, California State University, Monterey Bay
James W. Oberly, Emeritus Professor of HIstory, University of Wisconsin-Eau Claire
Margaret Olin, Senior Research Scholar, Department of Religious Studies, Program in Judaic Studies, Yale University
Annamaria Orla-Bukowska, Associate Professor, Institute of Sociology at the Jagiellonian University, Kraków and at the Graduate School of Social Research, Warsaw, Poland
Annelise Orleck, Professor of History, Dartmouth College
Andrea Orzoff,* Associate Professor of History and Honors, New Mexico State University
Troy Paddock, Professor of History, Southern Connecticut State University
Katrin Paehler, Associate Professor of History, Illinois State University
Cassandra Painter, Valparaiso University
Roxanne Panchasi, Associate Professor of History, Simon Fraser University, Canada
Elana Passman, Associate Professor of History, Earlham College
Avinoam Patt, Philip D. Feltman Professor of Modern Jewish History, Maurice Greenberg Center for Judaic Studies, University of Hartford
Andy Pearce, Associate Professor in Holocaust and History Education, University College London, UK
Andrew Joseph Pegoda, Women’s, Gender, Sexuality Studies Program, Departments of Comparative Cultural Studies and of English, University of Houston
Robert Jan van Pelt, Professor, School of Architecture, University of Waterloo, Ontario, Canada
Devin Pendas, Professor of History, Boston College
Heather R. Perry, Associate Professor of History, University of North Carolina at Charlotte
Terrence G. Peterson, Assistant Professor of History, Florida International University
Joanne Pettitt, Lecturer in Comparative Literature, University of Kent, UK
Toni Pitock, Assistant Professor of History, Co-Director of Judaic Studies Program, Drexel University
Anna Veronica Pobbe, University of Trento, Italy
Keith Pomakoy, Vice President of Academic and Student Affairs, The State University of New York, Sullivan
Emily Richmond Pollock, Associate Professor of Music and Theater Arts, Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Sara Poulin, Doctoral Candidate, Department of History, University of Western Ontario
Renée Poznanski, Head of the Simone Veil Research Centre for Contemporary European Studies, Yaacov and Poria Avnon Professor of Holocaust Studies, Department of Politics and Government (Emerita), Ben Gurion University of the Negev, Israel
Patrice G. Poutrus, Research Fellow, Universität Erfurt, Germany
Kim Christian Priemel, Professor of Contemporary European History, University of Oslo, Norway
Stephanie Pridgeon, Assistant Professor of Spanish and Latin American Studies, Bates College
Dan J. Puckett, Chair, Alabama Holocaust Commission, Professor of History, Troy University
Trevor A. Purvis, Assistant Professor, Department of Law & Legal Studies, Carleton University, Ottawa, Canada
Eric Rauchway, Professor of History, University of California, Davis
Anson Rabinbach, Phillip and Beulah Rollins Professor of History Emeritus, Princeton University
Celia E. Rabinowitz, Dean of Mason Library, Keene State College
Michaela Raggam-Blesch, Institute of Contemporary History, University of Vienna, Austria
Ben Ratskoff, Comparative Literature, University of California, Los Angeles
Ian Reifowitz, Professor of Historical Studies, SUNY Empire State College
Dominique Kirchner Reill, Associate Professor of Modern European History, University of Miami
Richard A. Reiman, Professor of History, South Georgia State College
Donald F. Reindl, Assistant Professor of Translation, University of Ljubljana, Slovenia,
James Retallack, University Professor, Department of History, University of Toronto, Canada
Daniel P. Reynolds, Seth Richards Professor in Modern Languages, Grinnell College
Jeff Rice, Senior Lecturer, Political Science, Northwestern University
Curtis Richardson, Research Fellow, Center for Slavic, East European and Eurasian Studies, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
Ned Richardson-Little, Nachwuchsgruppenleiter, University of Erfurt, Germany
Michael Riff, Director, the Gross Center for Holocaust and Genocide Studies, Ramapo College of New Jersey
Jennifer L. Rodgers, Research Assistant Professor of History and Assistant Editor, Einstein Papers Project, California Institute of Technology
Aron Rodrigue, Daniel E. Koshland Professor in Jewish Culture and History, Stanford University
Devorah Romanek, Curator of Exhibits, Maxwell Museum of Anthropology, Albuquerque, New Mexico
Sven-Erik Rose, Associate Professor of German and of Comparative Literature, University of California, Davis
Katherine Roseau, Assistant Professor of French, Mercer University
Mark Roseman, Distinguished Professor of History, Pat M. Glazer Chair in Jewish Studies, Indiana University Bloomington
Warren Rosenblum, Professor of History, Politics, and International Relations, Webster University
Neal M. Rosendorf, Associate Professor of International Relations History, New Mexico State University
Gavriel D. Rosenfeld, Professor of History, Director of Judaic Studies Program, Fairfield University
Aviel Roshwald, Professor of History, Georgetown University
Lauren Faulkner Rossi, Assistant Professor, Simon Fraser University
Michael Rothberg, 1939 Society Samuel Goetz Chair in Holocaust Studies, Professor of English and Comparative Literature, University of California, Los Angeles
Rachel Rothstein, Independent Scholar
Nadia Rubaii, Co-Director, Institute for Genocide and Mass Atrocity Prevention and Professor of Public Administration, Binghamton University
Jeff Rutherford, Associate Professor of History, Wheeling Jesuit University
Douglas Sackman, University of Puget Sound
Emily Sample, Executive Director, Genocide Prevention Program, George Mason University School for Conflict Analysis and Resolution
Debarati Sanyal, Professor of French, University of California, Berkeley
Sandrine Sanos, Professor of Modern European History, Texas A&M University, Corpus Christi
Derek Sayer, Professor Emeritus of Sociology and (by courtesy) History, University of Alberta, Canada
Rebecca P. Scales, Associate Professor of History, Rochester Institute of Technology
Allison Schachter, Associate Professor of Jewish Studies, Vanderbilt University
Charlotte Schallié, Associate Professor of Germanic Studies, University of Victoria, Canada
Florian Scheding, Senior Lecturer in Music, University of Bristol, UK
Christine Schmidt, Deputy Director and Head of Research, the Wiener Library, London
Gina Schouten, Assistant Professor of Philosophy, Harvard University
Daniel J. Schroeter, Amos S. Deinard Memorial Chair in Jewish History, University of Minnesota
Stefanie Schüler-Springorum, Director, Center for Research on Antisemitism, Institute of Technology, Berlin, Germany
Debra L. Schultz, Assistant Professor of History, Kingsborough Community College, City University of New York
Kevin M. Schultz, Professor of History and Religious Studies, University of Illinois at Chicago
Leslie A. Schwalm, Professor of History and Gender, Women’s, and Sexuality Studies, University of Iowa
Peter Schweppe, Assistant Professor of German Studies and History, Montana State University
Rebecca Scott, Adjunct Professor of History
Steven Seegel, Professor of History, University of Northern Colorado
Raz Segal, Assistant Professor of Holocaust and Genocide Studies, Stockton University; James J. Sheehan, Professor Emeritus, Department of History, Stanford University
Sasha Senderovich, Assistant Professor of Russian and Jewish Studies, University of Washington
Joshua Shanes, Associate Professor of Jewish Studies, College of Charleston
Scott J. Shapiro, Charles F. Southmayd Professor of Law, Professor of Philosophy, Yale University
Noah Shenker, N. Milgrom & 6a Foundation Senior Lecturer, Australian Centre for Jewish Civilisation, Monash University, Australia
Daniel J. Sherman, Lineberger Distinguished Professor of Art History and History, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
David Shneer,* Louis P. Singer Chair in Jewish History, Professor of History and Jewish Studies, University of Colorado Boulder
Marci Shore, Associate Professor of History, Yale University
Jennifer Siegel, Professor of History, Ohio State University
Susanna Siegel, Edgar Pierce Professor of Philosophy, Harvard University
Lewis Siegelbaum,* Jack and Margaret Sweet Professor Emeritus, Department of History, Michigan State University
Zuzana Sihelníková, Department of Mediamatics and Cultural Heritage, University of Žilina, Slovakia
Jordana Silverstein, ARC Postdoctoral Research Associate, School of Historical and Philosophical Studies, University of Melbourne, Australia
Sara Silverstein, Assistant Professor of History and Human Rights, University of Connecticut
Bryant Simon, Professor of History, Temple University
Brad Simpson, Associate Professor of History and Asian Studies, University of Connecticut
Alan Singer, Senior Lecturer in European History, Honors College, University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee
Helene Sinnreich,* Associate Professor, Religious Studies and Director, Fern and Manfred Steinfeld Program in Judaic Studies, University of Tennessee, Knoxville
Shana Sippy, Assistant Professor of Religion, Centre College/Danville, KY, Co-Director, Religious Diversity in MN Initiative/Research Associate, Carleton College
Dawn Skorczewski, Research Professor of English, Brandeis University
David Slucki, Assistant Professor in Jewish Studies, College of Charleston, co-director of Zucker/Goldberg Center for Holocaust Studies, College of Charleston
William Smaldone, E.J. Whipple Professor of History, Willamette University
Dana Smith, Assistant Professor of Holocaust and Genocide Studies, Keene State College
Helmut Walser Smith, Martha Rivers Ingram Professor of History, Vanderbilt University
Timothy Snyder, Richard C. Levin Professor of History, Yale University
Jennifer Sorensen, Independent Researcher & Writer, New Jersey
Daniel Soyer, Professor of History and Jewish Studies, Fordham University
Roland Spickermann, Associate Professor, University of Texas of the Permian Basin
Leo Spitzer, Vernon Professor of History, Emeritus, Dartmouth College
Martha Sprigge, Assistant Professor of Musicology, University of California, Santa Barbara
Ronit Y. Stahl, Assistant Professor of History, University of California, Berkeley
Jason Stanley, Jacob Urowsky Professor of Philosophy, Yale University
David E. Stannard, Emeritus Professor of American Studies, University of Hawaii at Mãnoa
Paul Steege, Associate Professor of History, Faculty Director, Lepage Center for History in the Public Interest, Villanova University
Richard Steigmann-Gall, Associate Professor of History and former Director of Jewish Studies, Kent State University
Sarah Abrevaya Stein, Professor of History, Maurice Amado Chair of Sephardic Studies and Sady and Ludwig Kahn Director, Alan D. Leve Center for Jewish Studies, University of California, Los Angeles
Gerald J. Steinacher, Professor of History and Hymen Rosenberg Professor of Judaic Studies, University of Nebraska-Lincoln
Sybille Steinbacher, Professor of Holocaust Studies, Goethe-Universität Frankfurt am Main, Germany
Alexandra Steinlight, Past & Present Postdoctoral Fellow, Institute of Historical Research, University of London, UK
Philipp Stelzel, Assistant Professor of History, Duquesne University
Frances Glazer Sternberg, Lecturer, Jewish Studies Program, University of Kansas
Oren Baruch Stier, Professor of Religious Studies, Director, Holocaust and Genocide Studies & Jewish Studies Certificate Program, Steven J. Green School of International and Public Affairs, Florida International University
Lauren Stokes, Assistant Professor of History, Northwestern University
Alexa Stiller, Research Fellow, University of Bern, Switzerland
Dan Stone, Professor of Modern History and Director, Holocaust Research Institute, Royal Holloway, University of London, UK
Elizabeth Strauss, Assistant Professor of History, Mount St. Mary’s University
Dorian Stuber, Isabelle Peregrin Odyssey Professor of English, Hendrix College
Thomas J. Sugrue, Professor of History and Social and Cultural Analysis, New York University
Jelena Subotic, Professor of Political Science, Georgia State University
Charley Sullivan, Department of History, University of Michigan
Irena Šumi, Assistant Professor of Anthropology, University of Ljubljana, Slovenia
Marina Swoboda, Adjunct Lecturer in History, Anglo-American University in Prague, Czech Republic
Guillaume de Syon, Professor of History, Albright College
Frances Tanzer, Visiting Assistant Professor, Strassler Center for Holocaust and Genocide Studies, Clark University
Naomi S. Taub, Department of English, University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign
Nicholas Terry, Senior Lecturer in Modern European History, University of Exeter, UK
Kai M. Thaler, Assistant Professor of Global Studies, University of California, Santa Barbara
Fabien Théofilakis, Assistant Professor, Centre d’histoire sociale des mondes contemporains, University of Paris 1 Panthéon Sorbonne, France
Jennifer Thompson, Associate Professor, Maurice Amado Professor of Applied Jewish Ethics and Civic Engagement, Jewish Studies Interdisciplinary Program, California State University, Northridge
Annette Timm, Professor of History, University of Calgary, Canada
Lisa Todd, Associate Professor of History, University of New Brunswick, Canada
Barry Trachtenberg,* Rubin Presidential Chair of Jewish History, Director, Jewish Studies Program, Wake Forest University
Corey L. Twitchell, Assistant Professor of German, Southern Utah University
Matthew Unangst, Assistant Professor of History, Jacksonville University
Daniel Unowsky, Professor of History, University of Memphis
Estibalitz Ezkerra Vegas, Lecturer, Basque Studies, University of California, Santa Barbara
J. David Velleman, Professor of Philosophy and Bioethics, New York University
Alana M. Vincent, Associate Professor of Jewish Philosophy, Religion, and Imagination, University of Chester, UK
Oren Vinogradov, Department of Music, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
Elizabeth Vlossak, Associate Professor of History, Brock University, Canada
Nikolaus Wachsmann, Professor of Modern European History, Birkbeck College, University of London
Anika Walke,* Associate Professor of History, Washington University in St. Louis
Charles Walker, MacArthur Foundation Endowed Chair in Global Human Rights, University of California, Davis
James Waller, Cohen Professor of Holocaust and Genocide Studies, Keene State College
Kenneth Waltzer, Professor of History Emeritus, James Madison College, Michigan State University
Steven M. Wasserstrom, Moe and Izetta Tonkin Professor of Judaic Studies and the Humanities, Reed College
Keith David Watenpaugh, Professor and Director of Human Rights Studies, University of California, Davis
Leslie M. Waters, Assistant Professor of History, The University of Texas at El Paso
Ulrike Weckel, Professor of History in the Media and in the Public, Justus-Liebig University, Giessen, Germany
Joanne Weiner Rudof, Archivist Emeritus, Fortunoff Video Archive for Holocaust Testimonies, Yale University
Alice Weinreb, Associate Professor of Modern History, Loyola University Chicago
Lori R. Weintrob, Professor of History and Director, Holocaust Center, Wagner College
Gary Weissman, Associate Professor of English and affiliate faculty member of Judaic Studies, University of Cincinnati
Eric D. Weitz, Distinguished Professor of History, City College and the Graduate Center, City University of New York
Angela West, Program in History and Culture, Drew University
Benjamin Thomas White, Lecturer in History, University of Glasgow, UK
Thomas White, Associate Director/Coordinator of Educational Outreach, Cohen Center for Holocaust and Genocide Studies, Keene State College
Jonathan Wiesen, Professor of History, University of Alabama at Birmingham
Michał J. Wilczewski, Visiting Lecturer, University of Illinois at Chicago
George Williamson, Associate Professor of History, Florida State University
Rebecca Wittmann, Chair, Department of Historical Studies, University of Toronto Mississauga, Associate Professor, Department of History, University of Toronto, Canada
Sebastian Wogenstein, Associate Professor of German and Comparative Literature, Interim Director, Center for Judaic Studies and Contemporary Jewish Life, University of Connecticut
Diane Wolf,* Professor of Sociology, University of California, Davis
Yoke-Sum Wong, Managing Editor, Journal of Historical Sociology, Alberta University of the Arts, Canada
Jamie L. Wraight, Director, The Voice/Vision Holocaust Oral History Archive, University of Michigan, Dearborn
Kathleen Wroblewski, Assistant Professor of History, Missouri State University
Yasemin Yildiz, Associate Professor of German and Comparative Literature, University of California, Los Angeles
Stephenie Young, Faculty Research Associate at the Salem State University Center for Holocaust and Genocide Studies and Professor of English, Salem State University
Tara Zahra, Homer J. Livingston Professor of History, University of Chicago
Michael Zank, Professor of Religion, Jewish Studies, and Medieval Studies and Director, Elie Wiesel Center for Jewish Studies, Boston University
Kimberly E. Zarecor, Professor of Architecture, Iowa State University
Jonathan Zasloff, Professor of Law, University of California, Los Angeles
Steven Zipperstein, Daniel E. Koshland Professor in Jewish Culture and History, Stanford University
Eve Zucker, Lecturer, Department of Anthropology, Yale University

*First signatories

 

Among the professors — mostly historians — who signed their names were four from Philadelphia-area institutions: Benjamin Nathans, a history professor at the University of Pennsylvania; Adam Knowles, a professor of philosophy at Drexel University; and two professors of Jewish studies at Temple University, Mark Leuchter and Laura Levitt. Knowles, Leuchter and Levitt spoke to the Jewish Exponent about why they added their names to the open letter. (Nathans, who is on book leave, could not be reached for comment.)

Drexel’s Knowles is familiar with the scholarly work of the USHMM; he’s done research with the Jack, Joseph and Morton Mandel Center for Advanced Holocaust Studies under the auspices of the museum, and is the author of an entry in the museum’s Holocaust Encyclopedia (“University Student Groups in Nazi Germany”).

It was his familiarity with and respect for the museum that compelled him to add his name to the letter.

“I thought it was important because, for one thing, the statement that was produced was at odds with what we take the USHMM to be and what its long-standing policies have been,” he said. It was “strangely incoherent and surprising,” he added, to see the museum “deny any possibility of any sort of analogy.”

The crucial point in the letter, Knowles said, was to try and preserve a model of high-quality Holocaust education that the museum has so painstakingly crafted.

The entrance to the U.S Holocaust Memorial Museum in 2006
The entrance to the USHMM in 2006 (Photo by user NCinDC, via Flickr)

Good Holocaust education, Knowles said, presents the Holocaust as the complicated political historical phenomenon that it was, rather than as a “caricatured vision of a black-and-white, good-evil clash that occurred.” It would “look at the complexities of the motivations of the perpetrators, the way the Nazis built a coalition of people to be involved in the project of mass murder even though they had diverse ideological commitments.”

Temple’s Levitt shares Knowles’ affection for the USHMM.

“I love the Holocaust museum,” she said. In fact, it was her love of the museum — from which she has “benefitted greatly” in the form of summer workshops and research resources — that made her add her name to the list of signatories. The letter, she believed, “was both intensely respectful of the institution and grateful for the kind of work that it does.” Still, it needed to be written, she said.

“The work that the institution does asks you to think about the Shoah in relation to other forms of genocide and abuse around the world,” she said, referencing an exhibition from several years ago that provided live footage of a Syrian refugee camp in Lebanon.

Levitt stressed that she sees the overdeployment of Holocaust analogies, from the left and the right, and is sympathetic to those who are pained to see their families’ experiences trotted out for political points. Analogies, when used, Levitt said, need to be used “responsibly, respectfully and carefully.”

Most importantly, Levitt said, children and their families suffer during a debate over language. Regarding the detention facilities at the heart of the debate, she said, “I do think that we are engaged in abusive behavior here, and that it is a humans rights violation.”

Levitt’s colleague Leuchter first heard about the letter when another colleague suggested that he take a look at a draft that was floating around. He had not yet seen the museum’s original statement, but he had, he said, been “paying attention to the currents of conversation” surrounding the debate regarding Holocaust analogies. The letter, Leuchter said, “is an important one for people to think about.”

“Analogies don’t necessarily mean that you’re saying that one thing is exactly the same as another,” said Leuchter. “And that means that you’re not necessarily diluting or taking away from the significance of the other point that you’re comparing it to.”

“Analogies can be instructive and opportunities for careful thinking,” he added.

Leuchter was quick to note that he was dismissive of those comparing the migrant detention facilities to the Nazi death camps, between which there are vast differences, he said. However, “there is some very worthwhile benefit in thinking about the stages that led up to the Final Solution,” he added.

Ultimately, he said, to truly value the Holocaust education provided by the museum’s scholars “would allow for the possibility of analogies.” But even that debate is less important than action when it comes to the migrant detention centers, Leuchter said.

“We should do something about it or we are going to hang our heads in shame for the next several generations when we look back on this chapter in history,” he said.

The USHMM did not respond to requests for comment.

[email protected]; 215-832-0740

3 COMMENTS

  1. These signers are with AOC “blind guides and hypocrites.” There is no analogy fit for any comparing the rounding up for execution 10 million Jewish people and the political elites’ corrupt power grab use of illegals to overwhelm our sovereignty and destroy our freedoms. And these so called smart people can’t see it. Only a mindless world view of rationalized morality would call reprobate evil a complicated political historical phenomenon. But it is a sign of the darkness this world is falling into. Jesus said it well: If then the light within you is darkness, how great is that darkness. Be careful, then, that the light within you is not darkness.

  2. No analogy is fit for comparing the rounding up for extermination 10 million Jewish people and a political elites power grab using illegals choice to force their way into our country to destroy our sovereignty and laws and ultimately our freedom.

  3. The scholars did not experience any of the wrongfully named Holocaust, (a sacrifice in the temple, a Hola) rightfully should be called a Shoah, a disaster instead for our nation the Jews for whom it is specifically named. We lost then a third of our nation in this Shoah. Anti-Semites always talk about others who lost people too during World War II (none lost a third of their nation being specifically planned and targeted like the Jews were targeted). This is a constant effort to diminish what is the Shoah. This last one is no different. The educational sector from where the objections comes is the same social milieu where support of the Islamic terror effort to delegitimize the Jewish state is supported by supporting BDS promoted by Islamic terror and no doubt by most of the signatories of this objection not to compare the Shoah to anything else.

LEAVE A REPLY

Please enter your comment!
Please enter your name here